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Kasparov calls for optimism on AI 20 years after loss to Deep Blue

AsiaIndustrial NetNews: On May 11, 1997, the IBM Deep Blue computer defeated the then world chess champion Garry Kasparov, which became a historic event in the annals of history. 20 years later, AlphaGo in the field of Go is about to play against the world’s No. 1 Go player Ke Jie, and at this time, Kasparov will also publish a new book “Deep Thinking: The End of artificial intelligence is Human Creativity.” Deep Thinking: Where Artificial Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins), reviewing the 20-year history of “Human VS Machine”.

Kasparov calls for optimism on AI 20 years after loss to Deep Blue

As a witness of “being defeated by machines”, Kasparov expressed profound and optimistic views on the issue of “human jobs being replaced by machines”. He believes that artificial intelligence will replace some of the jobs of humans. This trend cannot be Reversed, but machines can help humans lead a more creative and pleasurable spiritual life.

Kasparov is now chairman of the Human Rights Foundation and a visiting scholar at Oxford Martin College. The following is an excerpt from his upcoming book, which will be released on May 2.

i lost to IBM dark blue

When I became a chess champion, it was both my luck and my curse that computers finally reached this similar level.

On May 11, 1997, my last match against IBM Deep Blue made me the first chess champion to be beaten by a machine.

Needless to say, I hated failure, and I was disappointed by the result. Although it was a huge shock to the entire human race that I lost to IBM Deep Blue, it was not a heavy blow to myself. The cover title of Newsweek at the time was “The Last Stand of the Human Brain”. Six games in 1997 that cast a shadow over the “human vs. machine” story of the digital age, like steaming steelindustryTimes, the story of John Henry is the same (John Henry, a black steel worker in the United States in the 19th century, struggled to compete with machines, and finally won the victory, while he was exhausted).

Humans need to stop treating machines as “adversaries”

However, my encounter with Deep Blue can lead to completely different lessons. More than 20 years later, as I learned more and more about machine intelligence, I came to believe that the idea of ​​intelligent machines as adversaries had to stop. Perhaps intelligent machines are destructive, they are not a danger to mankind, but a benefit, bringing endless opportunities to expand people’s capabilities and improve the quality of life.

There are many people in computer science who dream of creating machines that can play chess. In 1953, Alan Turing published the first chess program. At the time, however, computers that could run the program didn’t exist, so he ran the algorithm on scratch paper to make a “paper machine” to play chess (at the time each move took half an hour).

For many early experts, it took machines longer than they thought to match top human players. But by the early 1980s, it became clear that it was only a matter of time before this dream came true, and that machine chess capabilities would increase dramatically as soon as faster hardware came along. The results show that machines do not need to imitate human thinking to play chess like a chess master.

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The abilities used by humans and machines to play chess are very similar, combining memory, evaluation and calculation. Although a chess master uses experience to find the most critical factors, the machine can sweep all the possibilities of moves from both sides. and gradually deepen.

From 1985 to 2005, I was at the top of the chess world, and the machines went from being hilariously low-minded to rivaling world champions. To experience this transformation first-hand is to be shocked and disturbed by the rapid development of the machine, even a strong sense of threat.

This feeling is what many people are experiencing today, because intelligent machines are advancing by leaps and bounds in one field after another. Of course, few people experience that dramatic, tit-for-tat situation with machines like I did, but that feeling of being challenged by machines and invisible algorithms, of being surpassed and replaced, is becoming a part of society today.

From my painful personal experience, I think the above way of thinking is wrong and has negative consequences, and we desperately need more optimism. The story of “human vs machine” happened widely in the era of the industrial revolution, with steam engines andmechanicalautomationLarge-scale in agriculture and manufacturing. Between 1960 and 1970robotRevolution, and more high-precision and intelligent machines begin to erode human jobs in manufacturing, and this “human vs. machine” story takes place more widely. Then came the information revolution, eliminating millions of jobs in service and support industries.

Machine intelligence brings us closer to human nature

Now, as we enter a new chapter in the story, machines are beginning to “threaten” humans who can read and write. Every day, media headlines tell of how machines can replace white-collar practitioners such as lawyers, bankers, and doctors, and that machines don’t make mistakes. These are all good news.

Every professional will eventually feel this pressure, which means that human progress has stopped for a long time. Rather than complaining that antibiotics have put many gravediggers out of work, there is a sense of nostalgia for technology to replace human work. The transfer of labor from human beings to human inventions is no less than a change in the history of civilization. This is closely related to the improvement of human living standards and the improvement of human rights for hundreds of years.

What a luxury it is to sit in a temperature-controlled room with a device in your pocket to gain access to all the human knowledge in the world, while mourning that we can no longer work with our hands! There are so many places in the world, so many people They still work with their hands all day, without clean drinking water and modern medical facilities. This group of people is dying because of lack of technology.

We cannot go back, we can only go forward. We cannot choose when and where to stop technological progress. There are some people whose jobs are lying on the chopping block of automation, they fear that the current wave of technology will make them poor, but at the same time, they also rely on the next wave of technology to bring economic growth, which is to create new sustainable The only path to employment opportunities.

I know it’s easier to tell millions of unemployed workers to “retrain for the information age” or “join the entrepreneurial economy” than to be one of them and go through the whole upheaval firsthand. However, who can be sure how long these trainings will become worthless? And what occupations must be “cannot be replaced by computers”?

There are many jobs today that did not exist 20 years ago, and this is a continuing and accelerating trend. mobile app designer,3D printingEngineers, drone pilots, social media managers, genetic counselors, these occupations have only emerged in recent years. Although society always needs expert talents, intelligent machines are constantly creating new technologies and continuously lowering the threshold for experts.

An iPad that a child can get started with in a few minutes and a PC from ten years ago can be compared to the tasks and time they can accomplish. Advances in these digital tools mean that people whose jobs are taken away by machines will need less training and retraining. It’s a virtuous cycle that frees people from routine work and allows people to do productive and creative work through the use of new technologies.

Replacing manual labor with machines can bring more attention to what is really human: our minds. Intelligent machines will continue to replace insignificant aspects of cognitive abilities, bringing people into spiritual lives full of creativity, curiosity, beauty, and joy. These spiritual treasures are what really make us who we are, not any particular activity or skill, such as swinging a hammer or playing chess.

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